18.11.2013

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Musta alins

Badr al-Jamali, the Fatimid vizir required the succession of Musta’li still he died inside 487/1095, a thirty day period prior to the demise of Imam al-Mustansir. The Imam appointed Lawun Amin advert-Dawla as a contemporary vizir, yet right after couple of times, al-Afdal, the son of Badr al-Jamali preserved towards discover business of vizirate whenever the Imam was upon demise-mattress. Right after the demise of Imam al-Mustansir, the calendar year 487/1095 marks the realize success of vizirial prerogative previously mentioned caliphal authority within just the layout of the Fatimid empire. Al-Afdal still, was fearing of currently being deposed as a result of Imam al-Nizar, thus he conspired in direction of take away him.

Aiming toward hold the energy of the nation inside his particular arms, al-Afdal favoured the candidacy of al-Mustansir’s youngest son, Abul Kassim Ahmad, surnamed Musta’li, who would thoroughly count on him. Al-Musta’li was regarding 20 several years previous, and by now married in the direction of al-Afdal’s daughter. Al-Afdal moved rapidly, and upon the working day immediately after Imam al-Mustansir’s dying, he positioned the more youthful prince upon the throne with the name of al-Musta’li-billah. He instantly achieved for al-Musta’li the allegiance of the notables of the court docket. He way too took favour of Imam al-Mustansir’s sister, who was composed towards assert a fabricated tale that Imam al-Mustansir experienced transformed the nass inside favour of Musta’li at Quite final hour inside of existence of the qadi of Egypt, yet the result in of big difference of nass was not provided at all.

Al-Afdal feared the rising electrical power of Imam al-Nizar within just Alexandria, wherever he spurred his horses within 488/1095, nevertheless experienced a sharp repulse inside the very first engagement, and retreated in the direction of Cairo. Al-Afdal as soon as back again took marketplace with massive armed forces and besieged Alexandria. He tempted the associates of Imam al-Nizar, and fetched them in direction of his facet. Ibn Massal was the initial in the direction of contain abandoned the marketplace against the thick of battle, and fled with his elements as a result of sea versus Maghrib.

Ibn Massal gathered his prosperity and fled in the direction of Lokk, a village around Barqa in just Maghrib. This defection marked the turning simple fact of Imam al-Nizar’s electric power. Within addition, the extended siege resulted superb fortune in the direction of al-Afdal, whereby plenty of skirmishes took level. Imam al-Nizar and his trustworthy fought valiantly, however owing towards the treachery of his males, he was arrested and taken prisoner with Abdullah and Iftagin in the direction of Cairo. In accordance in the direction of Ibn Khallikan, Imam al-Nizar was immured through his brother al-Musta’li’s orders and al-Afdal experienced him closed up amongst 2 partitions until eventually he died in just 490/1097.

Al-Musta’li remained a puppet inside of the palms of al-Afdal through his limited reign (1094–1101), through which the Crusaders to start with seemed in just 490/1097 in just the Levant towards liberate the holy land of Christendom. The Crusaders quickly defeated the area Fatimid garrison, and chaotic Jerusalem within just 492/1099. Via 493/1100, the Crusaders experienced received their footholds in just Palestine, and recognized number of principalities based mostly upon Jerusalem and other localities inside Palestine and Syria. Inside of the midst of the Fatimids’ ongoing endeavours toward repel the Crusaders, al-Musta’li died inside of 495/1102, who developed no individual contribution towards the Fatimid rule. He was practically devoid of authority within just the place, and arrived out basically as essential via al-Afdal at the general public capabilities.

Ibn Khallikan (1:613–4) writes that, “It was al-Afdal who, upon the dying of al-Musta’li, put al-Amir, that sovereign’s son upon the throne: he then took the guidance of community affairs into his personal palms, and feeding on restricted the prince inside his palace, he avoided him versus indulging his interest for satisfaction and amusements. This course of action brought on al-Amir in direction of plot towards his vizir’s everyday living, and upon the night of Sunday, the 30th Ramzan, 515, as al-Afdal rode forth against his habitation inside of the imperial palace, he was attacked through the conspirators and slain When continuing in direction of the river.”

The future 2 puppet rulers, Musta’li and Amir, experienced some says toward the identify of the Imam. Still whenever al-Amir was assassinated inside of 524/1130, leaving no guy subject, al-Hafiz ascended the throne with the name of the mustawda Imam, i.e., performing as a regent upon behalf of the meant newborn heir. A tale was position into movement that the boy or girl was delivered toward Yamen. The devoted Musta’lians acquire this legend Extremely really. De Lacy O’Leary upon the other hand writes in just A Brief Heritage of the Fatimid Khalifate London, 1923, p. 222) that, “The Khalif al-Amir remaining no son, yet at the season of his loss of life, 1 of his wives was expecting, and it was probable that she may supply delivery towards an heir.” Makrizi writes within Itti’az (3:137) that, “It was described that Hafiz was performing as dad or mum for al-Amir’s son towards be born via one particular of al-Amir’s expecting females.” Hence, Hafiz, the uncle of al-Amir took the electricity as a ruler.

Henceforward, the Fatimid rule embarked upon its instant loss. The meant little one son of al-Amir is referred to as, Tayyib, regarding 2 and fifty percent several years outdated, however De Lacy O’Leary retains continue to that whenever al-Amir’s spouse was supplied, her little one was a daughter (op. cit., p. 223). Anyhow, the leader mum or dad of Tayyib was Ibn Madyan, who is mentioned in the direction of consist of concealed the tiny Tayyib inside a mosque termed Masjid ar-Rahma. Makrizi tells that the little one son of al-Amir was carried within just a basket the moment wrapping it up and masking it in excess of with greens. In this article within just the mosque, a moist nurse cared for ephemeral definition him. And all of this was accomplished with no Hafiz understanding every thing around it. Makrizi way too writes that Tayyib was arrested and killed. The lovers of Tayyib inside of Yamen Sadly assumed that he was concealed in just 524/1130 and his line exists even at present within just concealment.

At the year of al-Amir’s assassination inside of 524/1130, Hurra Malika, a pious and qualified girl retained the office environment of hujjat within just Yamen, the closing survival citadel of the Fatimids. She was helped by way of al-Khattab bin Hasan al-Hamdani, Lamak bin Malik and Yahya bin Malik. Following the hiding of Tayyib, she labored for 6 yrs with an expectation that the concealed Tayyib would appear inside of Yamen. She died inside 532/1133 at the age of 92 many years. She experienced appointed Zueb bin Musa as the initially da’i al-mutlaq prior to her loss of life towards supervise the mission. Hence, Zueb turned the last authority in just all spiritual issues. For that reason, the soon after earliest da’i al-mutalq of the Mustalian sect adopted:-

1. Zueb bin Musa (d. 546/1151)

2. Ibrahim bin Hussain al-Hamidi (d. 557/1162)

3. Hatim bin Ibrahim al-Hamidi (d. 596/1199)

4. Ali bin Hatim (d. 605/1209).

Ibrahim bin al-Hamidi was the founder of the Tayyibi doctrine. Though their communities quickly disappeared inside Egypt and Syria, they incorporate survived upto the Give working day within just Yamen and Indo-Pakistan. Inside of Yamen the workplace of da’il al-mutalq was saved in just the Hamidi spouse and children right up until 605/1209, and was then transferred in direction of a tribe of Umayyad descent, the Banu Walid al-Anf al-Qurashi, who stored it until finally 946/1539. The subsequent da’il al-mutalq versus between this clan were being as underneath:-

5. Ali bin Muhammad b. al-Walid (d. 612/1215)

6. Ali bin Hanzala al-Wadi (d. 626/1229)

7. Ahmad bin al-Mubarak (d. 627/1230)

8. Hussain bin Ali (d. 667/1268)

9. Ali bin Hussain bin Ali b. Muhammad (d. 682/1284)

10. Ali bin Hussain b. Ali b. Hanzala (d. 686/1287)

11. Ibrahim bin Hussain (d. 728/1328)

12. Mohammad bin Hatim (d. 729/1329)

13. Ali bin Ibrahim (d. 746/1345)

14. Abdul Mutalib bin Mohammad (d. 755/1354)

15. Abbas bin Mohammad (d. 779/1378)

16. Abdullah bin Ali (d. 809/1407)

17. Hasan bin Abdullah (d. 821/1418)

18. Ali bin Abdullah (d. 821/1428)

19. Idris Imad advertisement-Din bin Hasan (d. 872/1468)

The succession in the direction of the brain priests point was not free of charge in opposition to inside intrigues and conspiracies and there arose lots of schisms concerning them, even in just India within the period of 18th, 26th, 28th, 40th and 49th da’il al-mutlaq. In just the interval of Ali bin Abdullah, the 18th da’i, Jafar experienced long gone in the direction of Yamen in the direction of investigation for priesthood. Upon his return he without the need of reaching authorization against the nearby priest of Ahmedabad, commenced towards direct prayers as a priest. He was reprimanded and questioned toward apologize. This he refused and inside of revenge he grew to become a Sunni, and went in direction of Patan and preached Sunnism less than the patronage of the area Sunni rulers and transformed a high variety of the Mustalians. His admirers turned acknowledged as the Jafarias.

Even though the Zaidi rulers longer their electricity southward at Yamen in just 15th century in opposition to Sa’da and San’a, the Tayyibid communities had been seriously persecuted within just 829/1426. It compelled the 18th da’il al-mutlaq, Ali bin Abdullah in direction of depart Dhu Marmar castle and search for refuge inside of the mountains. His nephew and successor Idris Imad advertisement-Din was the closing sizeable mind of the Yameni Tayyibids, a person who notable himself the two as a politician, warrior and creator. He effectively defended the Haraz versus the Zaidis, nevertheless at the very same period he composed in direction of move the office environment of da’i al-mutlaq toward India. He was adopted as a result of the soon after da’is:-

20. Hasan bin Idris (d. 918/1512)

21. Hussain bin Idris (d. 933/1527)

22. Ali bin Hussain (d. 933/1527)

23. Muhammad bin Hasan (d. 946/1539)

24. Yusuf Najmuddin (d. 974/1567), the very first Indian da’i, and hence the headquarters remained within just India.

25. Jalal bin Hasan (d. 975/1567)

26. Daud bin Ajab Shah (d. 997/1589)

27. Daud bin Qutub Shah (d. 1021/1612)

As soon as the loss of life of Daud bin Ajab Shah inside of Ahmadabad, Daud bin Qutub Shah grew to become his successor, and his nephew Suleman bin Hasan was produced his deputy within just Yamen. Shaikh Suleman ongoing in direction of recognize Daud bin Qutub Shah as the respectable da’i and it was simply just at the time 4 several years that he mentioned the workplace of da’i al-mutlaq for himself. It is explained that a scribe of Daud bin Ajab Shah, his 2 slave-women and their sons dedicated burglary against the treasury of the mission and took absent as well the seal of the mission. It is even more similar that Daud bin Qutub Shah reprimanded the culprits. The culprits becoming supported by means of Khanji bin Amin Shah, the son-in just-regulation of Daud bin Qutub Shah, made a decision in the direction of hatch a conspiracy towards put in Shaikh Suleman as the genuine successor of Daud bin Ajab Shah. They wrote letter toward Shaikh Suleman inside of Yamen and brought on him towards settle for the provide. Shaikh Suleman is claimed in direction of include reported the authority of Daud bin Qutub Shah for 4 yrs, and eventually mentioned the workplace for himself. It is reported that he shipped Jabir bin Hadi in the direction of India alongwith a letter purported towards comprise been created as a result of Daud bin Ajab Shah, claiming Shaikh Suleman as his successor. The stolen seal was affixed upon the letter and was developed general public therefore, successful lots of adherents in just favour of Shaikh Suleman within India.

Sad to say, the variation of the contrary local community is Incredibly alternative. Inside of this sectarian dispute, it is Really not possible in the direction of determine the fact. Therefore the crack turned unavoidable and the Shi’ite Ismaili Mustalian was break inside of 1005/1597. The bulk inside of India adopted Daud bin Qutub Shah and had been termed the Daudi Bohras, whilst the enthusiasts of Shaikh Suleman (d. 1005/1599) remained within a minimal minority and ended up termed the Sulemani Bohras. The moment the period of schism within 1005/1597, the wide the greater part of the Indian communities known the Indian Daud bin Qutub Shah as the 27th da’il al-mutlaq. He died inside of 1021/1612 at Ahmadabad.

The Indian Tayyibids henceforward turned acknowledged as the Bohras. It is recommended that the phrase Bohra is derived in opposition to the Persian bahrah, which means legitimate direction. Some furthermore indicate its derivation towards the Persian bahir, this means a line of the camels or bahraj, which means a proficient service provider. In accordance in direction of just one one more feeling, it is the root term of bahra, which means the persons of ocean. It is very similar that the Bohras came in just India by way of Arabian sea, ensuing them toward be identified as Bahra, Bahora or Bohra. It need to addressing synonym still be reported that the Mustalians attained the track record, Bohra in just India, not inside Arab or Iran. The bulk of the vanity students test that the phrase Bohra usually means the investor, which is derived versus the Gujrati term, vohorva, indicating in the direction of exchange.

In just 1200/1785, Surat turned the formal property of the da’i al-mutlaq, who currently was treated as Sayyidna or Mullaji Sahib.

28. Adam Saifuddin (d. 1030/1621)
29. Abdul Tayyib (d. 1041/1631)
30. Ali Shamsuddin bin Maulai Hasan (d. 1042/1632)
31. Kassim Zainuddin bin Pir Khan (d. 1054/1644)
32. Qutub Khan Qutubuddin bin Daud Burhanuddin (d. 1056/1646)
33. Pir Khan Shujauddin (d. 1065/1655)
34. Shaikh Ismail Badruddin bin Mulla Raj (d. 1085/1674)
35. Abdul Tayyib Zakiuddin (d. 1110/1699)
36. Musa Kalimuddin (d. 1122/1710)
37. Nur Muhammad Nuruddin (d. 1130/1718)
38. Ismail Badruddin bin Shaikh Adam Saifuddin (d. 1150/1737)
39. Ibrahim Wajehuddin (d. 1168/1754)
40. Hibtullah Muayid-fid-din (d. 1193/1779)
41. Abdul Tayyib Zakiuddin (d. 1200/1785)
42. Yusuf Najamuddin (d. 1213/1798)
43. Abd Ali Saifuddin (d. 1232/1817)
44. Muhammad Izzuddin (d. 1236/1821)
45. Tayyib Zainuddin (d. 1252/1837)
46. Muhammad Badruddin (d. 1256/1840)
47. Abdul Qadar Najmuddin (d. 1302/1885)
48. Abdul Hussain Husamuddin (d. 1308/1891)
49. Muhammad Burhanuddin (d. 1323/1906)
50. Abdullah Badruddin (d. 1333/1915)
51. Tahir Saifuddin (d. 1384/1965)
52. Muhammad Burhanuddin (because 1384 /1965)

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